The Indian Constitution is exclusive in its contents and spirit. Although borrowed from almost every constitution of the world, the Constitution of India has several salient features that distinguish it from the constitutions of the world.
The salient features of the Indian Constitution, as it stands right now, are as follows:
1. Lengthiest Written Constitution:
It consists of originally 395 Articles (now 440+) and 12 Schedules. It has XXII Parts. It is five times larger than US Constitution. It’s a comprehensive, elaborate, and detailed document.
2. Drawn From Varied Sources:
The Constitution of India has borrowed most of its provisions from the Constitutions of several different countries in addition to the Government of India Act of 1935.
3. A Mix of Federal and Unitary Features:
The Constitution strives for India as a Union of States. It has federal and unitary features. Federal features are the written constitution, the supremacy of the Constitution and judiciary, divisions of powers, and many others. Non-federal options are the Strong Center, the flexibility of the constitution, single constitution, and single citizenship, and many others.
4. The Distinctive Mixture of Rigidity and Flexibility:
The modification process of the Constitution is neither too rigid nor flexible. It’s a mixture of both.
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5. The Parliamentary System of the Government:
The Constitution of India offers a parliamentary system of government both in the center and the state. The President of India is a constitutional head and the real executive. The powers of the President are exercised by the council of ministers led by the prime minister.
6. Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic Republic:
The preamble of the sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic, Republic… It implies that India is an unbiased nation. It’s sovereign and not under any foreign control. Its objectives set up socialism and the nation by Democratic means. There is equal respect for all of the religions in India. The Constitution establishes a Democratic form of government and the head of the state is elected for a fixed term.
7. Fundamental Rights and Duties:
The Indian Constitution gives six essential fundamental rights in Part III under Article 12-35 for its citizens. It also provides Ten Fundamental Duties under Article 51 (A) to the citizens for establishing a democratic balance.
8. Directive Principles of State Policies (DPSP):
Part IV of the Indian Constitution under Article 36-51deals with the DPSP. These rules are a form of directives to the federal government to maintain the welfare of the peoples in mind while formulating its policies. It has been borrowed from the Irish Constitution. It aims to ascertain socio-economic balance to democracy.
9. Independent of Judiciary:
Indian Constitution has provided for an independent judiciary. The Supreme Court has been made free from all political influences and acts as the protector of the Constitution. The Supreme Court of India has been vested with the ability of judicial review.
10. Universal Adult Franchise:
All adults above the age of 18 years, irrespective of caste, color, or sex are entitled to take part in the election.